- The presence of allergies in the family.
- Incorrect diet of the mother during pregnancy and lactation and the child (too early switch from breast milk to modified milk), as well as childhood obesity.
Early exposure to nicotine smoke (secondhand smoke), infections and antibiotic treatment. Intestinal barrier dysfunction in the course of, inter alia, inflammatory bowel diseases. Lack of exposure to various external factors during childhood – no siblings, no contact with animals. Childbirth by caesarean section.
What are the symptoms of allergies in children?
In allergies, it is typical for symptoms to appear immediately or two hours after exposure to the allergen. Initial complaints usually concern the system that was in direct contact with the allergen, and only later may systemic symptoms appear.
Among the allergic symptoms are:
- nausea, heartburn, gas, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea,
- allergic rash
- stuffy and runny nose, hoarseness and cough
- laryngeal edema, chest shortness of breath
- bronchial asthma attack,
- oral allergy syndrome (OAS), including swelling, burning and stinging in the lips, mouth, throat and larynx
- anaphylactic shock.
In the case of infants and young children, however, the occurrence of skin lesions is very characteristic. Usually, it is atopic dermatitis that may appear as early as 3-6 months of age. It is then itching, dry skin, erythema, and the presence of lumps and vesicles. The lesions appear on the skin of the forehead, cheeks, head, lobes and distal parts of the limbs. Atopic dermatitis affects 1-22% of children and adolescents worldwide. Food allergies play a significant role in the development of this disease.
Children with food allergies find that almost all of them are allergic to the following foods:
- cow’s milk proteins,
- chicken egg proteins,
- nuts and peanuts
- fishes and seafood,
Importantly, 3% of children who are allergic to food may develop anaphylaxis. It is a life-threatening condition.