Prevention of the first stage (primary, primary) – for all or a significant part of it, including primary measures aimed at preventing the disease or reducing the risk of its development. He has wide range and includes:
- specific – prevention of certain diseases, such as preventive vaccinations, administration of vitamin D to infants and young children for the prevention of rickets;
- non-specific – prevention of many diseases, such as breastfeeding, nutrition, exercise.
Prevention of stage II (second, second degree) – aimed at a certain group of the population, although growing disease. Its purpose is to ensure early detection and treatment of symptoms. This species Prevention consists mainly of preventive examinations, three of which can be distinguished groups:
- screening examinations and preventive medical examinations of children;
- preventive medical examinations of various professional groups (including laboratory and X-ray examinations);
Other preventive examinations for early detection of the most common diseases among adults, including: Measurement of blood pressure, blood cholesterol, dental examination, tests in women PSA testing , mammography and / or ultrasound examination of men ( over 50 years) .
Early detection of prostate cancer.
Stage of prevention (third, rehabilitation, re-evaluation, re-education)
chronically ill or disabled. Its purpose is to prevent further adverse effects of the disease or disability, including:
- restoration (restoration) or replacement of damaged functions (eg prosthetics);
- help to overcome the disease and accept their condition;
- resistance to social isolation leading to secondary disability;
- help maintain good physical and mental condition, such as the development of compensatory functions
- disability, assessment of health and self-care, development of interests and skills that increase the possibility of active and independent participation in public life
Health promotion is a new direction in the strategy of practical action on the health of people and communities. Connects Elements of many disciplines and scientific disciplines – mainly sociology, social psychology, medicine, pedagogy, economics and political science. Today, it seems necessary to reach a consensus on a generally accepted definition of health promotion difficult due to the complexity and multifaceted nature of its concepts and strategies, as well as its multidisciplinary approach.